FAR -- Part 7 Acquisition Planning

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FAR -- Part 7
Acquisition Planning

(FAC 2005-88)
(15 June 2016)

7.000 -- Scope of Part.

This part prescribes policies and procedures for --

(a) Developing acquisition plans;

(b) Determining whether to use commercial or Government resources for acquisition of supplies or services;

(c) Deciding whether it is more economical to lease equipment rather than purchase it; and

(d) Determining whether functions are inherently governmental.

Subpart 7.1 -- Acquisition Plans

7.101 -- Definitions.

As used in this subpart--

“Acquisition streamlining” means any effort that results in more efficient and effective use of resources to design and develop, or produce quality systems. This includes ensuring that only necessary and cost-effective requirements are included, at the most appropriate time in the acquisition cycle, in solicitations and resulting contracts for the design, development, and production of new systems, or for modifications to existing systems that involve redesign of systems or subsystems.

“Life-cycle cost” means the total cost to the Government of acquiring, operating, supporting, and (if applicable) disposing of the items being acquired.

“Order” means an order placed under a—

“Planner” means the designated person or office responsible for developing and maintaining a written plan, or for the planning function in those acquisitions not requiring a written plan.

7.102 -- Policy.

(a) Agencies shall perform acquisition planning and conduct market research (see part 10) for all acquisitions in order to promote and provide for --

(b) This planning shall integrate the efforts of all personnel responsible for significant aspects of the acquisition. The purpose of this planning is to ensure that the Government meets its needs in the most effective, economical, and timely manner. Agencies that have a detailed acquisition planning system in place that generally meets the requirements of 7.104 and 7.105 need not revise their system to specifically meet all of these requirements.

7.103 -- Agency-Head Responsibilities.

The agency head or a designee shall prescribe procedures for --

(a) Promoting and providing for full and open competition (see Part 6) or, when full and open competition is not required in accordance with Part 6, for obtaining competition to the maximum extent practicable, with due regard to the nature of the supplies and services to be acquired (10 U.S.C. 2301(a)(5) and 41 U.S.C. 3306(a)(1)).

(b) Encouraging offerors to supply commercial items, or to the extent that commercial items suitable to meet the agency needs are not available, nondevelopmental items in response to agency solicitations (10 U.S.C. 2377 and 41 U.S.C. 3307.); and

(c) Ensuring that acquisition planners address the requirement to specify needs, develop specifications, and to solicit offers in such a manner to promote and provide for full and open competition with due regard to the nature of the supplies and services to be acquired (10 U.S.C. 2305(a)(1)(A) and 41 U.S.C. 3306(a)(1)). (See Part 6 and 10.002.)

(d) Ensuring that acquisition planners document the file to support the selection of the contract type in accordance with Subpart 16.1.

(e) Establishing criteria and thresholds at which increasingly greater detail and formality in the planning process is required as the acquisition becomes more complex and costly, including for cost-reimbursement and other high-risk contracts (e.g., other than firm-fixed-price contracts) requiring a written acquisition plan. A written plan shall be prepared for cost reimbursement and other high-risk contracts other than firm-fixed-price contracts, although written plans may be required for firm-fixed-price contracts as appropriate.

(f) Ensuring that the statement of work is closely aligned with performance outcomes and cost estimates.

(g) Writing plans either on a systems basis, on an individual contract basis, or on an individual order basis, depending upon the acquisition.

(h) Ensuring that the principles of this subpart are used, as appropriate, for those acquisitions that do not require a written plan as well as for those that do.

(i) Designating planners for acquisitions.

(j) Reviewing and approving acquisition plans and revisions to these plans to ensure compliance with FAR requirements including 7.104 and Part 16. For other than firm-fixed-price contracts, ensuring that the plan is approved and signed at least one level above the contracting officer.

(k) Establishing criteria and thresholds at which design-to-cost and life-cycle-cost techniques will be used.

(l) Establishing standard acquisition plan formats, if desired, suitable to agency needs; and

(m) Waiving requirements of detail and formality, as necessary, in planning for acquisitions having compressed delivery or performance schedules because of the urgency of the need.

(n) Assuring that the contracting officer, prior to contracting, reviews:

(o) Ensuring that agency planners include use of the metric system of measurement in proposed acquisitions in accordance with 15 U.S.C. 205b (see 11.002(b)) and agency metric plans and guidelines.

(p) Ensuring that agency planners—

(q) Ensuring that acquisition planners specify needs and develop plans, drawings, work statements, specifications, or other product descriptions that address Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards (see 36 CFR part 1194) in proposed acquisitions (see 11.002(e)) and that these standards are included in requirements planning, as appropriate (see Subpart 39.2).

(r) Making a determination, prior to issuance of a solicitation for advisory and assistance services involving the analysis and evaluation of proposals submitted in response to a solicitation, that a sufficient number of covered personnel with the training and capability to perform an evaluation and analysis of proposals submitted in response to a solicitation are not readily available within the agency or from another Federal agency in accordance with the guidelines at 37.204.

(s) Ensuring that no purchase request is initiated or contract entered into that would result in the performance of an inherently governmental function by a contractor and that all contracts or orders are adequately managed so as to ensure effective official control over contract or order performance.

(t) Ensuring that knowledge gained from prior acquisitions is used to further refine requirements and acquisition strategies. For services, greater use of performance-based acquisition methods should occur for follow-on acquisitions.

(u) Ensuring that acquisition planners, to the maximum extent practicable –

(v) Ensuring that agency planners on information technology acquisitions comply with the capital planning and investment control requirements in 40 U.S.C. 11312 and OMB Circular A-130.

(w) Ensuring that agency planners on information technology acquisitions comply with the information technology security requirements in the Federal Information Security Management Act (44 U.S.C. 3544), OMB’s implementing policies including Appendix III of OMB Circular A-130, and guidance and standards from the Department of Commerce’s National Institute of Standards and Technology.

(x) Encouraging agency planners to consider the use of a project labor agreement (see Subpart 22.5).

(y) Ensuring that contracting officers consult the Disaster Response Registry at via https://www.acquisition.gov as a part of acquisition planning for debris removal, distribution of supplies, reconstruction, and other disaster or emergency relief activities inside the United States and outlying areas. (See 26.205).

7.104 -- General Procedures.

(a) Acquisition planning should begin as soon as the agency need is identified, preferably well in advance of the fiscal year in which contract award or order placement is necessary. In developing the plan, the planner shall form a team consisting of all those who will be responsible for significant aspects of the acquisition, such as contracting, fiscal, legal, and technical personnel. If contract performance is to be in a designated operational area or supporting a diplomatic or consular mission, the planner shall also consider inclusion of the combatant commander or chief of mission, as appropriate. The planner should review previous plans for similar acquisitions and discuss them with the key personnel involved in those acquisitions. At key dates specified in the plan or whenever significant changes occur, and no less often than annually, the planner shall review the plan and, if appropriate, revise it.

(b) Requirements and logistics personnel should avoid issuing requirements on an urgent basis or with unrealistic delivery or performance schedules, since it generally restricts competition and increases prices. Early in the planning process, the planner should consult with requirements and logistics personnel who determine type, quality, quantity, and delivery requirements.

(c) The planner shall coordinate with and secure the concurrence of the contracting officer in all acquisition planning. If the plan proposes using other than full and open competition when awarding a contract, the plan shall also be coordinated with the cognizant advocate for competition.


(e) The planner shall ensure that a COR is nominated as early as practicable in the acquisition process by the requirements official or in accordance with agency procedures. The contracting officer shall designate and authorize a COR as early as practicable after the nomination. See 1.602-2(d).

7.105 -- Contents of Written Acquisition Plans.

In order to facilitate attainment of the acquisition objectives, the plan must identify those milestones at which decisions should be made (see paragraph (b)(21) of this section). The plan must address all the technical, business, management, and other significant considerations that will control the acquisition. The specific content of plans will vary, depending on the nature, circumstances, and stage of the acquisition. In preparing the plan, the planner must follow the applicable instructions in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, together with the agency’s implementing procedures. Acquisition plans for service contracts or orders must describe the strategies for implementing performance-based acquisition methods or must provide rationale for not using those methods (see Subpart 37.6).

(a) Acquisition background and objectives --

(b) Plan of action --

7.106 -- Additional Requirements for Major Systems.

(a) In planning for the solicitation of a major system (see Part 34) development contract, planners shall consider requiring offerors to include, in their offers, proposals to incorporate in the design of a major system --

(b) In planning for the solicitation of a major system (see Part 34) production contract, planners shall consider requiring offerors to include, in their offers, proposals identifying opportunities to assure that the Government will be able to obtain, on a competitive basis, items acquired in connection with the system that are likely to be acquired in substantial quantities during the service life of the system. Proposals submitted in response to such requirements may include the following:

(c) In determining whether to apply paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, planners shall consider the purposes for which the system is being acquired and the technology necessary to meet the system’s required capabilities. If such proposals are required, the contracting officer shall consider them in evaluating competing offers. In noncompetitive awards, the factors in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, may be considered by the contracting officer as objectives in negotiating the contract.

7.107 – Additional Requirements for Acquisitions Involving Bundling.

(a) Bundling may provide substantial benefits to the Government. However, because of the potential impact on small business participation, the head of the agency must conduct market research to determine whether bundling is necessary and justified (15 U.S.C. 644(e)(2)). Market research may indicate that bundling is necessary and justified if an agency or the Government would derive measurably substantial benefits (see 10.001(a)(2)(iv) and (a)(3)(vi)).

(b) Measurably substantial benefits may include, individually or in any combination or aggregate, cost savings or price reduction, quality improvements that will save time or improve or enhance performance or efficiency, reduction in acquisition cycle times, better terms and conditions, and any other benefits. The agency must quantify the identified benefits and explain how their impact would be measurably substantial. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, the agency may determine bundling to be necessary and justified if, as compared to the benefits that it would derive from contracting to meet those requirements if not bundled, it would derive measurably substantial benefits equivalent to –

(c) Without power of delegation, the service acquisition executive for the military departments, the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics for the defense agencies, or the Deputy Secretary or equivalent for the civilian agencies may determine that bundling is necessary and justified when—

(d) Reduction of administrative or personnel costs alone is not sufficient justification for bundling unless the cost savings are expected to be at least 10 percent of the estimated contract or order value (including options) of the bundled requirements.

(e) Substantial bundling is any bundling that results in a contract or order that meets the dollar amounts specified in 7.104(d)(2). When the proposed acquisition strategy involves substantial bundling, the acquisition strategy must additionally--

(f) The contracting officer must justify bundling in acquisition strategy documentation.

(g) In assessing whether cost savings would be achieved through bundling, the contracting officer must consider the cost that has been charged or, where data is available, could be charged by small business concerns for the same or similar work.

(h) The requirements of this section, except for paragraph (e), do not apply if a cost comparison analysis will be performed in accordance with OMB Circular A-76.

7.108 - Additional Requirements for Telecommuting.

In accordance with 41 U.S.C. 3306(f), an agency shall generally not discourage a contractor from allowing its employees to telecommute in the performance of Government contracts. Therefore, agencies shall not--

(a) Include in a solicitation a requirement that prohibits an offeror from permitting its employees to telecommute unless the contracting officer first determines that the requirements of the agency, including security requirements, cannot be met if telecommuting is permitted. The contracting officer shall document the basis for the determination in writing and specify the prohibition in the solicitation; or

(b) When telecommuting is not prohibited, unfavorably evaluate an offer because it includes telecommuting, unless the contracting officer first determines that the requirements of the agency, including security requirements, would be adversely impacted if telecommuting is permitted. The contracting officer shall document the basis for the determination in writing and address the evaluation procedures in the solicitation.

Subpart 7.2 -- Planning for the Purchase of Supplies in Economic Quantities

7.200 -- Scope of Subpart.

This subpart prescribes policies and procedures for gathering information from offerors to assist the Government in planning the most advantageous quantities in which supplies should be purchased.

7.201 -- [Reserved]

7.202 -- Policy.

(a) Agencies are required by 10 U.S.C. 2384(a) and 41 U.S.C. 3310 to procure supplies in such quantity as

(b) Each solicitation for a contract for supplies is required, if practicable, to include a provision inviting each offeror responding to the solicitation--

7.203 -- Solicitation Provision.

Contracting officers shall insert the provision at 52.207-4, Economic Purchase Quantity -- Supplies, in solicitations for supplies. The provision need not be inserted if the solicitation is for a contract under the General Services Administration’s multiple award schedule contract program, or if the contracting officer determines that--

(a) The Government already has the data;

(b) The data is otherwise readily available; or

(c) It is impracticable for the Government to vary its future requirements.

7.204 -- Responsibilities of Contracting Officers.

(a) Contracting officers are responsible for transmitting offeror responses to the solicitation provision at 52.207-4 to appropriate inventory management/requirements development activities in accordance with agency procedures. The economic purchase quantity data so obtained are intended to assist inventory managers in establishing and evaluating economic order quantities for supplies under their cognizance.

(b) In recognition of the fact that economic purchase quantity data furnished by offerors are only one of many data inputs required for determining the most economical order quantities, contracting officers should generally take no action to revise quantities to be acquired in connection with the instant procurement. However, if a significant price variation is evident from offeror responses, and the potential for significant savings is apparent, the contracting officer shall consult with the cognizant inventory manager or requirements development activity before proceeding with an award or negotiations. If this consultation discloses that the Government should be ordering an item of supply in different quantities and the inventory manager/requirements development activity concurs, the solicitation for the item should be amended or canceled and a new requisition should be obtained.

Subpart 7.3 -- Contractor Versus Government Performance

7.300 – [Reserved]

7.301 – Definitions.

Definitions of “inherently governmental activity” and other terms applicable to this subpart are set forth at Attachment D of the Office of Management and Budget Circular No. A-76 (Revised), Performance of Commercial Activities, dated May 29, 2003 (the Circular).

7.302 -- Policy.

(a) The Circular provides that it is the policy of the Government to—

(b) As provided in the Circular, agencies shall—

(c) When using sealed bidding in public-private competitions under OMB Circular A-76, contracting officers shall not hold discussions to correct deficiencies.

7.303 – [Reserved]

7.304 – [Reserved]

7.305 -- Solicitation Provisions and Contract Clause.

(a) The contracting officer shall, when soliciting offers and tenders, insert in solicitations issued for the purpose of standard competitions the provision at 52.207-1, Notice of Standard Competition.

(b) The contracting officer shall, when soliciting offers, insert in solicitations issued for streamlined competitions the provision at 52.207-2, Notice of Streamlined Competition.

(c) The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.207-3, Right of First Refusal of Employment, in all solicitations which may result in a conversion from in-house performance to contract performance of work currently being performed by the Government and in contracts that result from the solicitations, whether or not a public-private competition is conducted. The 10-day period in the clause may be varied by the contracting officer up to a period of 90 days.

Subpart 7.4 -- Equipment Lease or Purchase

7.400 -- Scope of Subpart.

This subpart provides guidance pertaining to the decision to acquire equipment by lease or purchase. It applies to both the initial acquisition of equipment and the renewal or extension of existing equipment leases.

7.401 -- Acquisition Considerations.

(a) Agencies should consider whether to lease or purchase equipment based on a case-by-case evaluation of comparative costs and other factors. The following factors are the minimum that should be considered:

(b) The following additional factors should be considered, as appropriate, depending on the type, cost, complexity, and estimated period of use of the equipment:

7.402 -- Acquisition Methods.

(a) Purchase method.

(b) Lease method.

7.403 -- General Services Administration Assistance.

(a) When requested by an agency, the General Services Administration (GSA) will assist in lease or purchase decisions by providing information such as --

(b) Agencies may request information from the following GSA office: U.S. General Services Administration, Federal Acquisition Service, Office of Acquisition Management, 2200 Crystal Drive, Room 806, Arlington, VA, 22202. Email: fasam@gsa.gov.

7.404 -- Contract Clause.

The contracting officer shall insert a clause substantially the same as the clause in 52.207-5, Option to Purchase Equipment, in solicitations and contracts involving a lease with option to purchase.

Subpart 7.5 -- Inherently Governmental Functions

7.500 -- Scope of Subpart.

The purpose of this subpart is to prescribe policies and procedures to ensure that inherently governmental functions are not performed by contractors.

7.501 – [Reserved].

7.502 -- Applicability.

The requirements of this subpart apply to all contracts for services. This subpart does not apply to services obtained through either personnel appointments, advisory committees, or personal services contracts issued under statutory authority.

7.503 -- Policy.

(a) Contracts shall not be used for the performance of inherently governmental functions.

(b) Agency decisions which determine whether a function is or is not an inherently governmental function may be reviewed and modified by appropriate Office of Management and Budget officials.

(c) The following is a list of examples of functions considered to be inherently governmental functions or which shall be treated as such. This list is not all inclusive:

(d) The following is a list of examples of functions generally not considered to be inherently governmental functions. However, certain services and actions that are not considered to be inherently governmental functions may approach being in that category because of the nature of the function, the manner in which the contractor performs the contract, or the manner in which the Government administers contractor performance. This list is not all inclusive:

(e) Agency implementation shall include procedures requiring the agency head or designated requirements official to provide the contracting officer, concurrent with transmittal of the statement of work (or any modification thereof), a written determination that none of the functions to be performed are inherently governmental. This assessment should place emphasis on the degree to which conditions and facts restrict the discretionary authority, decision-making responsibility, or accountability of Government officials using contractor services or work products. Disagreements regarding the determination will be resolved in accordance with agency procedures before issuance of a solicitation.

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