FAR -- Part 14 Sealed Bidding

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FAR -- Part 14
Sealed Bidding

(FAC 2005-95)
(13 January2017)

(FAC 2005-100)

(22 Aug 2018)

14.000 -- Scope of Part.

This part prescribes

(a) The basic requirements of contracting for supplies and services (including construction) by sealed bidding;

(b) The information to be included in the solicitation (invitation for bids);

(c) Procedures concerning the submission of bids;

(d) Requirements for opening and evaluating bids and awarding contracts; and

(e) Procedures for two-step sealed bidding.

Subpart 14.1 -- Use of Sealed Bidding

14.101 -- Elements of Sealed Bidding.

Sealed bidding is a method of contracting that employs competitive bids, public opening of bids, and awards. The following steps are involved:

(a) Preparation of invitations for bids. Invitations must describe the requirements of the Government clearly, accurately, and completely. Unnecessarily restrictive specifications or requirements that might unduly limit the number of bidders are prohibited. The invitation includes all documents (whether attached or incorporated by reference) furnished prospective bidders for the purpose of bidding.

(b) Publicizing the invitation for bids. Invitations must be publicized through distribution to prospective bidders, posting in public places, and such other means as may be appropriate. Publicizing must occur a sufficient time before public opening of bids to enable prospective bidders to prepare and submit bids.

(c) Submission of bids. Bidders must submit sealed bids to be opened at the time and place stated in the solicitation for the public opening of bids.

(d) Evaluation of bids. Bids shall be evaluated without discussions.

(e) Contract award. After bids are publicly opened, an award will be made with reasonable promptness to that responsible bidder whose bid, conforming to the invitation for bids, will be most advantageous to the Government, considering only price and the price-related factors included in the invitation.

14.102 -- [Reserved]

14.103 -- Policy.

14.103-1 -- General.

(a) Sealed bidding shall be used whenever the conditions in 6.401(a) are met. This requirement applies to any proposed contract action under Part 6.

(b) Sealed bidding may be used for classified acquisitions if its use does not violate agency security requirements.

(c) The policy for pricing modifications of sealed bid contract appears in 15.403-4(a)(1)(iii).

14.103-2 -- Limitations.

No awards shall be made as a result of sealed bidding unless --

(a) Bids have been solicited as required by Subpart 14.2;

(b) Bids have been submitted as required by Subpart 14.3;

(c) The requirements of 1.602-1(b) and Part 6 have been met; and

(d) An award is made to the responsible bidder (see 9.1) whose bid is responsive to the terms of the invitation for bids and is most advantageous to the Government, considering only price and the price related factors included in the invitation, as provided in Subpart 14.4.

14.104 -- Types of Contracts.

Firm-fixed-price contracts shall be used when the method of contracting is sealed bidding, except that fixed-price contracts with economic price adjustment clauses may be used if authorized in accordance with 16.203 when some flexibility is necessary and feasible. Such clauses must afford all bidders an equal opportunity to bid.

14.105 -- Solicitations for Informational or Planning Purposes.

(See 15.201(e).)

Subpart 14.2 -- Solicitation of Bids

14.201 -- Preparation of Invitations for Bids.

14.201-1 -- Uniform Contract Format.

(a) Contracting officers shall prepare invitations for bids and contracts using the uniform contract format outlined in Table 14-1 to the maximum practicable extent. The use of the format facilitates preparation of the solicitation and contract as well as reference to, and use of, those documents by bidders and contractors. It need not be used for acquisition of the following:

(b) Information suitable for inclusion in invitations for bids under the uniform contract format shall also be included in invitations for bids not subject to that format if applicable.

(c) Solicitations to which the uniform contract format applies shall include Parts I, II, III, and IV. If any section of the uniform contract format does not apply, the contracting officer should so mark that section in the solicitation. Upon award, the contracting officer shall not physically include Part IV in the resulting contract, but shall retain it in the contract file. Award by acceptance of a bid on the award portion of Standard Form 33, Solicitation, Offer and Award (SF 33), Standard Form 26, Award/Contract (SF 26), or Standard Form 1447, Solicitation/Contract (SF 1447), incorporates Section K, Representations, certifications, and other statements of bidders, in the resultant contract even though not physically attached. (See 4.1201(c).) The representations and certifications shall be incorporated by reference in the contract by using 52.204-19 (see 4.1202(b)) or for acquisitions of commercial items see 52.212-4(v).

14.201-2 -- Part I -- The Schedule.

The contracting officer shall prepare the Schedule as follows:

(a) Section A, Solicitation/contract form.

(b) Section B, Supplies or services and prices. Include a brief description of the supplies or services; e.g., line item number, national stock number/part number if applicable, title or name identifying the supplies or services, and quantities (see Part 11). The SF 33 and the SF 1447 may be supplemented as necessary by the Optional Form 336 (OF 336), Continuation Sheet.

(c) Section C, Description/specifications. Include any description or specifications needed in addition to Section B to permit full and open competition (see Part 11).

(d) Section D, Packaging and marking. Provide packaging, packing, preservation, and marking requirements, if any.

(e) Section E, Inspection and acceptance. Include inspection, acceptance, quality assurance, and reliability requirements (see Part 46, Quality Assurance).

(f) Section F, Deliveries or performance. Specify the requirements for time, place, and method of delivery or performance (see Subpart 11.4, Delivery or Performance Schedules).

(g) Section G, Contract administration data. Include any required accounting and appropriation data and any required contract administration information or instructions other than those on the solicitation form.

(h) Section H, Special contract requirements. Include a clear statement of any special contract requirements that are not included in Section I, Contract clauses, or in other sections of the uniform contract format.

14.201-3 -- Part II -- Contract Clauses.

Section I, Contract clauses. The contracting officer shall include in this section the clauses required by law or by this regulation and any additional clauses expected to apply to any resulting contract, if these clauses are not required to be included in any other section of the uniform contract format.

14.201-4 -- Part III -- Documents, Exhibits, and Other Attachments.

Section J, List of documents, exhibits, and other attachments. The contracting officer shall list the title, date, and number of pages for each attached document.

14.201-5 -- Part IV -- Representations and Instructions.

The contracting officer shall prepare the representations and instructions as follows:

(a) Section K, Representations, certifications, and other statements of bidders. Include in this section those solicitation provisions that require representations, certifications, or the submission of other information by bidders.

(b) Section L, Instructions, conditions, and notices to bidders. Insert in this section solicitation provisions and other information and instructions not required elsewhere to guide bidders. Invitations shall include the time and place for bid openings, and shall advise bidders that bids will be evaluated without discussions (see 52.214-10 and, for construction contracts, 52.214-19).

(c) Section M, Evaluation factors for award. Identify the price related factors other than the bid price that will be considered in evaluating bids and awarding the contract. See 14.201-8.

14.201-6 -- Solicitation Provisions.

(a) The provisions prescribed in this subsection apply to preparation and submission of bids in general. See other FAR parts for provisions and clauses related to specific acquisition requirements.

(b) Insert in all invitations for bids the provisions at --

(c) Insert the following provisions in invitations for bids:

(d) [Reserved]

(e) Insert in all invitations for bids, except those for construction, the provisions at 52.214-10, Contract Award - Sealed Bidding.

(f) Insert in invitations for bids to which the uniform contract format applies, the provision at 52.214-12, Preparation of Bids.

(g) [Reserved]

(h) Insert the provision at 52.214-14, Place of Performance -- Sealed Bidding, in invitations for bids except those in which the place of performance is specified by the Government.

(i) Insert the provision at 52.214-15, Period for Acceptance of Bids, in invitations for bids (IFB's) that are not issued on SF 33 or SF 1447 except IFB's

(j) Insert the provision at 52.214-16, Minimum Bid Acceptance Period, in invitations for bids, except for construction, if the contracting officer determines that a minimum acceptance period must be specified.

(k) [Reserved]

(l) Insert the provision at 52.214-18, Preparation of Bids -- Construction, in invitations for bids for construction work.

(m) Insert the provision at 52.214-19, Contract Award -- Sealed Bidding -- Construction, in all invitations for bids for construction work.

(n) [Reserved]



(q) Insert the provision at 52.214-22, Evaluation of Bids for Multiple Awards, in invitations for bids if the contracting officer determines that multiple awards might be made if doing so is economically advantageous to the Government.

(r) Insert the provision at 52.214-23, Late Submissions, Modifications, Revisions, and Withdrawals of Technical Proposals under Two-Step Sealed Bidding, in solicitations for technical proposals in step one of two-step sealed bidding.

(s) Insert the provision at 52.214-24, Multiple Technical Proposals, in solicitations for technical proposals in step one of two-step sealed bidding if the contracting officer permits the submission of multiple technical proposals.

(t) Insert the provision at 52.214-25, Step Two of Two-Step Sealed Bidding, in invitations for bids issued under step two of two-step sealed bidding.

(u) [Reserved]

(v) Insert the provision at 52.214-31, Facsimile Bids, in solicitations if facsimile bids are authorized (see 14.202-7).

(w) Insert the provision at 52.214-34, Submission of Offers in the English Language, in solicitations that include any of the clauses prescribed in 25.1101 or 25.1102. It may be included in other solicitations when the contracting officer decides that it is necessary.

(x) Insert the provision at 52.214-35, Submission of Offers in U.S. Currency, in solicitations that include any of the clauses prescribed in 25.1101 or 25.1102, unless the contracting officer includes the clause at 52.225-17, Evaluation of Foreign Currency Offers, as prescribed in 25.1103(d). It may be included in other solicitations when the contracting officer decides that it is necessary.

14.201-7 -- Contract Clauses.

(a) When contracting by sealed bidding, the contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.214-26, Audit and Records -- Sealed Bidding, in solicitations and contracts as follows:



(d) When contracting by sealed bidding the contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.214-29, Order of Precedence -- Sealed Bidding, in solicitations and contracts to which the uniform contract format applies.

14.201-8 -- Price Related Factors.

The factors set forth in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this subsection may be applicable in evaluation of bids for award and shall be included in the solicitation when applicable. (See 14.201-5(c).)

(a) Foreseeable costs or delays to the Government resulting from such factors as differences in inspection, locations of supplies, and transportation. If bids are on an f.o.b. origin basis (see 47.303 and 47.305), transportation costs to the designated points shall be considered in determining the lowest cost to the Government.

(b) Changes made, or requested by the bidder, in any of the provisions of the invitation for bids, if the change does not constitute a ground for rejection under 14.404.

(c) Advantages or disadvantages to the Government that might result from making more than one award (see 14.201-6(q)). The contracting officer shall assume, for the purpose of making multiple awards, that $500 would be the administrative cost to the Government for issuing and administering each contract awarded under a solicitation. Individual awards shall be for the items or combinations of items that result in the lowest aggregate cost to the Government, including the assumed administrative costs.

(d) Federal, state, and local taxes (see Part 29).

(e) Origin of supplies, and, if foreign, the application of the Buy American statute or any other prohibition on foreign purchases (see Part 25).

14.201-9 -- Simplified Contract Format.

Policy. For firm-fixed-price or fixed-price with economic price adjustment acquisitions of supplies and services, the contracting officer may use the simplified contract format in lieu of the uniform contract format (see 14.201-1). The contracting officer has flexibility in preparation and organization of the simplified contract format. However, the following format should be used to the maximum practical extent:

(a) Solicitation/contract form. Standard Form (SF) 1447, Solicitation/Contract, shall be used as the first page of the solicitation.

(b) Contract schedule. Include the following for each line item:

(c) Clauses. Include the clauses required by this regulation. Additional clauses shall be incorporated only when considered absolutely necessary to the particular acquisition.

(d) List of documents and attachments. Include if necessary.

(e) Representations and instructions--

14.202 -- General Rules for Solicitation of Bids.

14.202-1 -- Bidding Time.

(a) Policy. A reasonable time for prospective bidders to prepare and submit bids shall be allowed in all invitations, consistent with the needs of the Government. (For construction contracts, see 36.213-3(a).) A bidding time (i.e., the time between issuance of the solicitation and opening of bids) of at least 30 calendar days shall be provided, when synopsis is required by Subpart 5.2.

(b) Factors to be considered. Because of unduly limited bidding time, some potential sources may be precluded from bidding and others may be forced to include amounts for contingencies that, with additional time, could be eliminated. To avoid unduly restricting competition or paying higher-than-necessary prices, consideration shall be given to such factors as the following in establishing a reasonable bidding time:

14.202-2 – [Reserved]

14.202-3 -- Bid Envelopes.

(a) Postage or envelopes bearing “Postage and Fees Paid” indicia shall not be distributed with the invitation for bids or otherwise supplied to prospective bidders.

(b) To provide for ready identification and proper handling of bids, Optional Form 17, Offer Label, may be furnished with each bid set. The form may be obtained from the General Services Administration (see 53.107).

14.202-4 -- Bid Samples.

(a) Policy.

(b) When to use. The use of bid samples would be appropriate for products that must be suitable from the standpoint of balance, facility of use, general “feel,” color, pattern, or other characteristics that cannot be described adequately in the specification. However, when more than a minor portion of the characteristics of the product cannot be adequately described in the specification, products should be acquired by two-step sealed bidding or negotiation, as appropriate.

(c) Justification. The reasons why acceptable products cannot be acquired without the submission of bid samples shall be set forth in the contract file, except where the submission is required by the formal specifications (Federal, Military, or other) applicable to the acquisition.

(d) Requirements for samples in invitations for bids.

(e) Waiver of requirement for bid samples.

(f) Unsolicited samples. Bid samples furnished with a bid that are not required by the invitation generally will not be considered as qualifying the bid and will be disregarded. However, the bid sample will not be disregarded if it is clear from the bid or accompanying papers that the bidder's intention was to qualify the bid. (See 14.404-2(d) if the qualification does not conform to the solicitation.)

(g) Handling bid samples.

14.202-5 -- Descriptive Literature.

(a) Policy. Contracting officers must not require bidders to furnish descriptive literature unless it is needed before award to determine whether the products offered meet the specification and to establish exactly what the bidder proposes to furnish.

(b) Justification. The contracting officer must document in the contract file the reasons why product acceptability cannot be determined without the submission of descriptive literature, except when contract specifications require submission.

(c) Requirements of invitation for bids.

(d) Waiver of requirement for descriptive literature.

(e) Unsolicited descriptive literature. If descriptive literature is furnished when it is not required by the invitation for bids, the procedures set forth in 14.202-4(f) must be followed.

14.202-6 -- Final Review of Invitations for Bids.

Each invitation for bids shall be thoroughly reviewed before issuance to detect and correct discrepancies or ambiguities that could limit competition or result in the receipt of nonresponsive bids. Contracting officers are responsible for the reviews.

14.202-7 -- Facsimile Bids.

(a) Unless prohibited or otherwise restricted by agency procedures, contracting officers may authorize facsimile bids (see 14.201-6(v)). In determining whether or not to authorize facsimile bids, the contracting officer shall consider factors such as --

(b) If facsimile bids are authorized, contracting officers may, after the date set for bid opening, request the apparently successful offeror to provide the complete, original signed bid.

14.202-8 -- Electronic Bids.

In accordance with Subpart 4.5, contracting officers may authorize use of electronic commerce for submission of bids. If electronic bids are authorized, the solicitation shall specify the electronic commerce method(s) that bidders may use.

14.203 -- Methods of Soliciting Bids.

14.203-1 -- Transmittal to Prospective Bidders.

Invitations for bids or presolicitation notices must be provided in accordance with 5.102. When a contracting office is located in the United States, any solicitation sent to a prospective bidder located outside the United States shall be sent by electronic data interchange or air mail if security classification permits.

14.203-2 -- Dissemination of Information Concerning Invitations for Bids.

Procedures concerning display of invitations for bids in a public place, information releases to newspapers and trade journals, paid advertisements, and synopsizing through the Governmentwide point of entry (GPE) are set forth in 5.101 and Subpart 5.2.

14.203-3 -- Master Solicitation.

Master solicitation is provided to potential sources who are requested to retain it for continued and repetitive use. Individual solicitations must reference the date of the current master solicitation and identify any changes. The contracting officer must--

(a) Make available copies of the master solicitation on request; and.

(b) Provide the cognizant contract administration activity a current copy of the master solicitation.

14.204 -- Records of Invitations for Bids and Records of Bids.

(a) Each contracting office shall retain a record of each invitation that it issues and each abstract or record of bids. Contracting officers shall review and utilize the information available in connection with subsequent acquisitions of the same or similar items.

(b) The file for each invitation shall show the distribution that was made and the date the invitation was issued. The names and addresses of prospective bidders who requested the invitation and were not included on the original solicitation list shall be added to the list and made a part of the record.

14.205 -- Presolicitation Notices.

In lieu of initially forwarding complete bid sets, the contracting officer may send presolicitation notices to concerns. The notice shall--

14.206 – [Reserved]

14.207 -- Pre-Bid Conference.

A pre-bid conference may be used, generally in a complex acquisition, as a means of briefing prospective bidders and explaining complicated specifications and requirements to them as early as possible after the invitation has been issued and before the bids are opened. It shall never be used as a substitute for amending a defective or ambiguous invitation. The conference shall be conducted in accordance with the procedure prescribed in 15.201.

14.208 -- Amendment of Invitation for Bids.

(a) If it becomes necessary to make changes in quantity, specifications, delivery schedules, opening dates, etc., or to correct a defective or ambiguous invitation, such changes shall be accomplished by amendment of the invitation for bids using Standard Form 30, Amendment of Solicitation/Modification of Contract. The fact that a change was mentioned at a pre-bid conference does not relieve the necessity for issuing an amendment. Amendments shall be sent, before the time for bid opening, to everyone to whom invitations have been furnished and shall be displayed in the bid room.

(b) Before amending an invitation for bids, the contracting officer shall consider the period of time remaining until bid opening and the need to extend this period.

(c) Any information given to a prospective bidder concerning an invitation for bids shall be furnished promptly to all other prospective bidders as an amendment to the invitation

14.209 -- Cancellation of Invitations Before Opening.

(a) The cancellation of an invitation for bids usually involves a loss of time, effort, and money spent by the Government and bidders. Invitations should not be cancelled unless cancellation is clearly in the public interest; e.g.,

(b) When an invitation issued other than electronically is cancelled, bids that have been received shall be returned unopened to the bidders and notice of cancellation shall be sent to all prospective bidders to whom invitations were issued. When an invitation issued electronically is cancelled, a general notice of cancellation shall be posted electronically, the bids received shall not be viewed, and the bids shall be purged from primary and backup data storage systems.

(c) The notice of cancellation shall--

14.210 -- Qualified Products.

(See Subpart 9.2.)

14.211 -- Release of Acquisition Information.

(a) Before solicitation. Information concerning proposed acquisitions shall not be released outside the Government before solicitation except for presolicitation notices in accordance with 14.205 or 36.213-2, or long-range acquisition estimates in accordance with 5.404, or synopses in accordance with 5.201. Within the Government, such information shall be restricted to those having a legitimate interest. Releases of information shall be made

(b) After solicitation. Discussions with prospective bidders regarding a solicitation shall be conducted and technical or other information shall be transmitted only by the contracting officer or superiors having contractual authority or by others specifically authorized. Such personnel shall not furnish any information to a prospective bidder that alone or together with other information may afford an advantage over others. However, general information that would not be prejudicial to other prospective bidders may be furnished upon request; e.g., explanation of a particular contract clause or a particular condition of the schedule in the invitation for bids, and more specific information or clarifications may be furnished by amending the solicitation (see 14.208).

14.212 -- Economic Purchase Quantities (Supplies).

Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase quantity planning requirements for supplies in Subpart 7.2. See 7.203 for instructions regarding use of the provision at 52.207-4, Economic Purchase Quantity -- Supplies, and 7.204 for guidance on handling responses to that provision.

Subpart 14.3 -- Submission of Bids

14.301 -- Responsiveness of Bids.

(a) To be considered for award, a bid must comply in all material respects with the invitation for bids. Such compliance enables bidders to stand on an equal footing and maintain the integrity of the sealed bidding system.

(b) Facsimile bids shall not be considered unless permitted by the solicitation (see 14.202-7).

(c) Bids should be filled out, executed, and submitted in accordance with the instructions in the invitation. If a bidder uses its own bid form or a letter to submit a bid, the bid may be considered only if --

(d) Bids submitted by electronic commerce shall be considered only if the electronic commerce method was specifically stipulated or permitted by the solicitation.

14.302 -- Bid Submission.

Bids shall be submitted so that they will be received in the office designated in the invitation for bids not later than the exact time set for opening of bids.

14.303 -- Modification or Withdrawal of Bids.

(a) Bids may be modified or withdrawn by any method authorized by the solicitation, if notice is received in the office designated in the solicitation not later than the exact time set for opening of bids. If the solicitation authorizes facsimile bids, bids may be modified or withdrawn via facsimile received at any time before the exact time set for receipt of bids, subject to the conditions specified in the provision prescribed in 14.201-6(v). Modifications received by facsimile shall be sealed in an envelope by a proper official.

(b) A bid may be withdrawn in person by a bidder or its authorized representative if, before the exact time set for opening of bids, the identity of the persons requesting withdrawal is established and that person signs a receipt for the bid.

(c) Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received shall not be viewed and shall be purged from primary and backup data storage systems.

14.304 – Submission, Modifications and Withdrawal of Bids.

(a) Bidders are responsible for submitting bids, and any modifications or withdrawals, so as to reach the Government office designated in the invitation for bid (IFB) by the time specified in the IFB. They may use any transmission method authorized by the IFB (i.e., regular mail, electronic commerce, or facsimile). If no time is specified in the IFB, the time for receipt is 4:30 p.m., local time, for the designated Government office on the date that bids are due.


(c) Acceptable evidence to establish the time of receipt at the Government installation includes the time/date stamp of such installation on the bid wrapper, other documentary evidence of receipt maintained by the installation, or oral testimony or statements of Government personnel.

(d) If an emergency or unanticipated event interrupts normal Government processes so that bids cannot be received at the Government office designated for receipt of bids by the exact time specified in the IFB, and urgent Government requirements preclude amendment of the bid opening date, the time specified for receipt of bids will be deemed to be extended to the same time of day specified in the IFB on the first work day on which normal Government processes resume.

(e) Bids may be withdrawn by written notice received at any time before the exact time set for receipt of bids. If the IFB authorizes facsimile bids, bids may be withdrawn via facsimile received at any time before the exact time set for receipt of bids, subject to the conditions specified in the provision at 52.214-31, Facsimile Bids. A bid may be withdrawn in person by a bidder or its authorized representative if, before the exact time set for receipt of bids, the identity of the person requesting withdrawal is established and the person signs a receipt for the bid. Upon withdrawal of an electronically transmitted bid, the data received must not be viewed and, where practicable, must be purged from primary and backup data storage systems.

(f) The contracting officer must promptly notify any bidder if its bid, modification, or withdrawal was received late, and must inform the bidder whether its bid will be considered, unless contract award is imminent and the notices prescribed in 14.409 would suffice.

(g) Late bids and modifications that are not considered must be held unopened, unless opened for identification, until after award and then retained with other unsuccessful bids. However, any bid bond or guarantee must be returned.

(h) If available, the following must be included in the contract files for each late bid, modification, or withdrawal:

Subpart 14.4 -- Opening of Bids and Award of Contract

14.400 -- Scope of Subpart.

This subpart contains procedures for the receipt, handling, opening, and disposition of bids including mistakes in bids, and subsequent award of contracts.

14.401 -- Receipt and Safeguarding of Bids.

(a) All bids (including modifications) received before the time set for the opening of bids shall be kept secure. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the bids shall not be opened or viewed, and shall remain in a locked bid box, a safe, or in a secured, restricted-access electronic bid box. If an invitation for bids is cancelled, bids shall be returned to the bidders. Necessary precautions shall be taken to ensure the security of the bid box or safe. Before bid opening, information concerning the identity and number of bids received shall be made available only to Government employees. Such disclosure shall be only on a “need to know” basis. When bid samples are submitted, they shall be handled with sufficient care to prevent disclosure of characteristics before bid opening.

(b) Envelopes marked as bids but not identifying the bidder or the solicitation may be opened solely for the purpose of identification, and then only by an official designated for this purpose. If a sealed bid is opened by mistake (e.g., because it is not marked as being a bid), the envelope shall be signed by the opener, whose position shall also be written thereon, and delivered to the designated official. This official shall immediately write on the envelope

14.402 -- Opening of Bids.

14.402-1 -- Unclassified Bids.

(a) The bid opening officer shall decide when the time set for opening bids has arrived and shall inform those present of that decision. The officer shall then

(b) Performance of the procedure in paragraph (a) of this section may be delegated to an assistant, but the bid opening officer remains fully responsible for the actions of the assistant.

(c) Examination of bids by interested persons shall be permitted if it does not interfere unduly with the conduct of Government business. Original bids shall not be allowed to pass out of the hands of a Government official unless a duplicate bid is not available for public inspection. The original bid may be examined by the public only under the immediate supervision of a Government official and under conditions that preclude possibility of a substitution, addition, deletion, or alteration in the bid.

14.402-2 -- Classified Bids.

The general public may not attend bid openings for classified acquisitions. A bidder or its representative may attend and record the results if the individual has the appropriate security clearance. The contracting officer also may make the bids available at a later time to properly cleared individuals who represent bidders. No public record shall be made of bids or bid prices received in response to classified invitations for bids.

14.402-3 -- Postponement of Openings.

(a) A bid opening may be postponed even after the time scheduled for bid opening (but otherwise in accordance with 14.208) when--

(b) At the time of a determination to postpone a bid opening under subparagraph (a)(1) of this section, an announcement of the determination shall be publicly posted. If practical before issuance of a formal amendment of the invitation, the determination shall be otherwise communicated to prospective bidders who are likely to attend the scheduled bid opening.

(c) In the case of paragraph (a)(2) of this section, and when urgent Government requirements preclude amendment of the solicitation as prescribed in 14.208, the time specified for opening of bids will be deemed to be extended to the same time of day specified in the solicitation on the first work day on which normal Government processes resume. In such cases, the time of actual bid opening shall be deemed to be the time set for bid opening for the purpose of determining “late bids” under 14.304. A note should be made on the abstract of bids or otherwise added to the file explaining the circumstances of the postponement.

14.403 -- Recording of Bids.

(a) Standard Form 1409, Abstract of Offers, or Optional Form 1419, Abstract of Offers -- Construction (or automated equivalent), shall be completed and certified as to its accuracy by the bid opening officer as soon after bid opening as practicable. Where bid items are too numerous to warrant complete recording of all bids, abstract entries for individual bids may be limited to item numbers and bid prices. In preparing these forms, the extra columns and SF 1410, Abstract of Offers -- Continuation, and OF 1419A, Abstract of Offer -- Construction, Continuation Sheet, may be used to label and record such information as the contracting activity deems necessary.

(b) Abstracts of offers for unclassified acquisitions shall be available for public inspection. Such abstracts shall not contain information regarding failure to meet minimum standards of responsibility, apparent collusion of bidders, or other notations properly exempt from disclosure to the public in accordance with agency regulations implementing Subpart 24.2.

(c) The forms identified in paragraph (a) of this section need not be used by the Defense Energy Support Center for acquisitions of coal or petroleum products or by the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia for perishable subsistence items.

(d) If an invitation for bids is cancelled before the time set for bid opening, this fact shall be recorded together with a statement of the number of bids invited and the number of bids received.

14.404 -- Rejection of Bids.

14.404-1 -- Cancellation of Invitations After Opening.


(b) When it is determined before award but after opening that the requirements of 11.201 (relating to the availability and identification of specifications) have not been met, the invitation shall be cancelled.

(c) Invitations may be cancelled and all bids rejected before award but after opening when, consistent with subparagraph (a)(1) of this section, the agency head determines in writing that --

(d) Should administrative difficulties be encountered after bid opening that may delay award beyond bidders’ acceptance periods, the several lowest bidders whose bids have not expired (irrespective of the acceptance period specified in the bid) should be requested, before expiration of their bids, to extend in writing the bid acceptance period (with consent of sureties, if any) in order to avoid the need for resoliciting.

(e) Under some circumstances, completion of the acquisition after cancellation of the invitation for bids may be appropriate.

(f) When the agency head has determined, in accordance with paragraph (e)(1) of this subsection, that an invitation for bids should be canceled and that use of negotiation is in the Government’s interest, the contracting officer may negotiate (in accordance with Part 15, as appropriate) and make award without issuing a new solicitation provided --

14.404-2 -- Rejection of Individual Bids.

(a) Any bid that fails to conform to the essential requirements of the invitation for bids shall be rejected.

(b) Any bid that does not conform to the applicable specifications shall be rejected unless the invitation authorized the submission of alternate bids and the supplies offered as alternates meet the requirements specified in the invitation.

(c) Any bid that fails to conform to the delivery schedule or permissible alternates stated in the invitation shall be rejected.

(d) A bid shall be rejected when the bidder imposes conditions that would modify requirements of the invitation or limit the bidder’s liability to the Government, since to allow the bidder to impose such conditions would be prejudicial to other bidders. For example, bids shall be rejected in which the bidder --

(e) A low bidder may be requested to delete objectionable conditions from a bid provided the conditions do not go to the substance, as distinguished from the form, of the bid, or work an injustice on other bidders. A condition goes to the substance of a bid where it affects price, quantity, quality, or delivery of the items offered.

(f) Any bid may be rejected if the contracting officer determines in writing that it is unreasonable as to price. Unreasonableness of price includes not only the total price of the bid, but the prices for individual line items as well.

(g) Any bid may be rejected if the prices for any line items or subline items are materially unbalanced (see 15.404-1(g)).

(h) Bids received from any person or concern that is suspended, debarred, proposed for debarment or declared ineligible as of the bid opening date shall be rejected unless a compelling reason determination is made (see Subpart 9.4).

(i) Low bids received from concerns determined to be not responsible pursuant to Subpart 9.1 shall be rejected (but if a bidder is a small business concern, see 19.6 with respect to certificates of competency).

(j) When a bid guarantee is required and a bidder fails to furnish the guarantee in accordance with the requirements of the invitation for bids, the bid shall be rejected, except as otherwise provided in 28.101-4.

(k) The originals of all rejected bids, and any written findings with respect to such rejections, shall be preserved with the papers relating to the acquisition.

(l) After submitting a bid, if all of a bidder’s assets or that part related to the bid are transferred during the period between the bid opening and the award, the transferee may not be able to take over the bid. Accordingly, the contracting officer shall reject the bid unless the transfer is effected by merger, operation of law, or other means not barred by 41 U.S.C. 6305 or 31 U.S.C. 3727.

14.404-3 -- Notice to Bidders of Rejection of All Bids.

When it is determined necessary to reject all bids, the contracting officer shall notify each bidder that all bids have been rejected and shall state the reason for such action.

14.404-4 -- Restrictions on Disclosure of Descriptive Literature.

When a bid is accompanied by descriptive literature (as defined in 2.101), and the bidder imposes a restriction that prevents the public disclosure of such literature, the restriction may render the bid nonresponsive. The restriction renders the bid nonresponsive if it prohibits the disclosure of sufficient information to permit competing bidders to know the essential nature and type of the products offered or those elements of the bid that relate to quantity, price, and delivery terms. The provisions of this paragraph do not apply to unsolicited descriptive literature submitted by a bidder if such literature does not qualify the bid (see 14.202-5(e)).

14.404-5 -- All or None Qualifications.

Unless the solicitation provides otherwise, a bid may be responsive notwithstanding that the bidder specifies that award will be accepted only on all, or a specified group, of the items. Bidders shall not be permitted to withdraw or modify “all or none” qualifications after bid opening since such qualifications are substantive and affect the rights of other bidders.

14.405 -- Minor Informalities or Irregularities in Bids.

A minor informality or irregularity is one that is merely a matter of form and not of substance. It also pertains to some immaterial defect in a bid or variation of a bid from the exact requirements of the invitation that can be corrected or waived without being prejudicial to other bidders. The defect or variation is immaterial when the effect on price, quantity, quality, or delivery is negligible when contrasted with the total cost or scope of the supplies or services being acquired. The contracting officer either shall give the bidder an opportunity to cure any deficiency resulting from a minor informality or irregularity in a bid or waive the deficiency, whichever is to the advantage of the Government. Examples of minor informalities or irregularities include failure of a bidder to --

(a) Return the number of copies of signed bids required by the invitation;

(b) Furnish required information concerning the number of its employees;

(c) Sign its bid, but only if --

(d) Acknowledge receipt of an amendment to an invitation for bids, but only if --

(e) Execute the representations with respect to Equal Opportunity and Affirmative Action Programs, as set forth in the clauses at 52.222-22, Previous Contracts and Compliance Reports, and 52.222-25, Affirmative Action Compliance.

14.406 -- Receipt of an Unreadable Electronic Bid.

If a bid received at the Government facility by electronic data interchange is unreadable to the degree that conformance to the essential requirements of the invitation for bids cannot be ascertained, the contracting officer immediately shall notify the bidder that the bid will be rejected unless the bidder provides clear and convincing evidence --

(a) Of the content of the bid as originally submitted; and

(b) That the unreadable condition of the bid was caused by Government software or hardware error, malfunction, or other Government mishandling.

14.407 -- Mistakes in Bids.

14.407-1 -- General.

After the opening of bids, contracting officers shall examine all bids for mistakes. In cases of apparent mistakes and in cases where the contracting officer has reason to believe that a mistake may have been made, the contracting officer shall request from the bidder a verification of the bid, calling attention to the suspected mistake. If the bidder alleges a mistake, the matter shall be processed in accordance with this section 14.407. Such actions shall be taken before award.

14.407-2 -- Apparent Clerical Mistakes.

(a) Any clerical mistake, apparent on its face in the bid, may be corrected by the contracting officer before award. The contracting officer first shall obtain from the bidder a verification of the bid intended. Examples of apparent mistakes are --

(b) Correction of the bid shall be effected by attaching the verification to the original bid and a copy of the verification to the duplicate bid. Correction shall not be made on the face of the bid; however, it shall be reflected in the award document.

(c) Correction of bids submitted by electronic data interchange shall be effected by including in the electronic solicitation file the original bid, the verification request, and the bid verification.

14.407-3 -- Other Mistakes Disclosed Before Award.

In order to minimize delays in contract awards, administrative determinations may be made as described in this 14.407-3 in connection with mistakes in bids alleged after opening of bids and before award. The authority to permit correction of bids is limited to bids that, as submitted, are responsive to the invitation and may not be used to permit correction of bids to make them responsive. This authority is in addition to that in 14.407-2 or that may be otherwise available.

(a) If a bidder requests permission to correct a mistake and clear and convincing evidence establishes both the existence of the mistake and the bid actually intended, the agency head may make a determination permitting the bidder to correct the mistake; provided, that if this correction would result in displacing one or more lower bids, such a determination shall not be made unless the existence of the mistake and the bid actually intended are ascertainable substantially from the invitation and the bid itself.

(b) If --

(c) If, under paragraph (a) or (b) of this subsection,

(d) If the evidence does not warrant a determination under paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section, the agency head may make a determination that the bid be neither withdrawn nor corrected.

(e) Heads of agencies may delegate their authority to make the determinations under paragraphs (a), (b), (c), and (d) of this 14.407-3 to a central authority, or a limited number of authorities as necessary, in their agencies, without power of redelegation.

(f) Each proposed determination shall have the concurrence of legal counsel within the agency concerned before issuance.

(g) Suspected or alleged mistakes in bids shall be processed as follows. A mere statement by the administrative officials that they are satisfied that an error was made is insufficient.

(h) Each agency shall maintain records of all determinations made in accordance with this subsection 14.407-3, the facts involved, and the action taken in each case. Copies of all such determinations shall be included in the file.

(i) Nothing contained in this subsection 14.407-3 prevents an agency from submitting doubtful cases to the Comptroller General for advance decision.

14.407-4 -- Mistakes After Award.

If a contractor’s discovery and request for correction of a mistake in bid is not made until after the award, it shall be processed under the procedures of Subpart 33.2 and the following:

(a) When a mistake in a contractor’s bid is not discovered until after award, the mistake may be corrected by contract modification if correcting the mistake would be favorable to the Government without changing the essential requirements of the specifications.

(b) In addition to the cases contemplated in paragraph (a) of this section or as otherwise authorized by law, agencies are authorized to make a determination --

(c) Determinations under subparagraphs (b)(1) and (2) above may be made only on the basis of clear and convincing evidence that a mistake in bid was made. In addition, it must be clear that the mistake was--

(d) Each proposed determination shall be coordinated with legal counsel in accordance with agency procedures.

(e) Mistakes alleged or disclosed after award shall be processed as follows:

(f) Each agency shall include in the contract file a record of --

14.408 -- Award.

14.408-1 -- General.

(a) The contracting officer shall make a contract award

(b) If less than three bids have been received, the contracting officer shall examine the situation to ascertain the reasons for the small number of responses. Award shall be made notwithstanding the limited number of bids. However, the contracting officer shall initiate, if appropriate, corrective action to increase competition in future solicitations for the same or similar items, and include a notation of such action in the records of the invitation for bids (see 14.204).



14.408-2 -- Responsible Bidder -- Reasonableness of Price.

(a) The contracting officer shall determine that a prospective contractor is responsible (see Subpart 9.1) and that the prices offered are reasonable before awarding the contract. The price analysis techniques in 15.404-1(b) may be used as guidelines. In each case the determination shall be made in the light of all prevailing circumstances. Particular care must be taken in cases where only a single bid is received.

(b) The price analysis shall consider whether bids are materially unbalanced (see 15.404-1(g)).

14.408-3 -- Prompt Payment Discounts.

(a) Prompt payment discounts shall not be considered in the evaluation of bids. However, any discount offered will form a part of the award, and will be taken by the payment center if payment is made within the discount period specified by the bidder. As an alternative to indicating a discount in conjunction with the offer, bidders may prefer to offer discounts on individual invoices.

(b) See 32.111(b)(1), which prescribes the contract clause at 52.232-8, Discounts for Prompt Payment.

14.408-4 -- Economic Price Adjustment.

(a) Bidder proposes economic price adjustment.

(b) Government proposes economic price adjustment.

14.408-5 -- [Reserved]

14.408-6 -- Equal Low Bids.

(a) Contracts shall be awarded in the following order of priority when two or more low bids are equal in all respects:

(b) If two or more bidders still remain equally eligible after application of paragraph (a) of this section, award shall be made by a drawing by lot limited to those bidders. If time permits, the bidders involved shall be given an opportunity to attend the drawing. The drawing shall be witnessed by at least three persons, and the contract file shall contain the names and addresses of the witnesses and the person supervising the drawing.

(c) When an award is to be made by using the priorities under this 14.408-6, the contracting officer shall include a written agreement in the contract that the contractor will perform, or cause to be performed, the contract in accordance with the circumstances justifying the priority used to break the tie or select bids for a drawing by lot.

14.408-7 -- Documentation of Award.

(a) The contracting officer shall document compliance with 14.103-2 in the contract file.

(b) The documentation shall either state that the accepted bid was the lowest bid received, or list all lower bids with reasons for their rejection in sufficient detail to justify the award.

(c) When an award is made after receipt of equal low bids, the documentation shall describe how the tie was broken.

14.408-8 -- Protests Against Award.

(See Subpart 33.1, Protests.)

14.409 -- Information to Bidders.

14.409-1 -- Award of Unclassified Contracts.


(b) Information included in paragraph (a)(2) of this subsection shall be provided to any unsuccessful bidder upon request except when multiple awards have been made and furnishing information on the successful bids would require so much work as to interfere with normal operations of the contracting office. In such circumstances, only information concerning location of the abstract of offers need be given.

(c) When a request is received concerning an unclassified invitation from an inquirer who is neither a bidder nor a representative of a bidder, the contracting officer should make every effort to furnish the names of successful bidders and, if requested, the prices at which awards were made. However, when such requests require so much work as to interfere with the normal operations of the contracting office, the inquirer will be advised where a copy of the abstract of offers may be seen.

(d) Requests for records shall be governed by agency regulations implementing Subpart 24.2.

14.409-2 -- Award of Classified Contracts.

In addition to 14.409-1, if classified information was furnished or created in connection with the solicitation, the contracting officer shall advise the unsuccessful bidders, including any who did not bid, to take disposition action in accordance with agency procedures. The name of the successful bidder and the contract price will be furnished to unsuccessful bidders only upon request. Information regarding a classified award shall not be furnished by telephone.

Subpart 14.5 -- Two-Step Sealed Bidding

14.501 -- General.

Two-step sealed bidding is a combination of competitive procedures designed to obtain the benefits of sealed bidding when adequate specifications are not available. An objective is to permit the development of a sufficiently descriptive and not unduly restrictive statement of the Government’s requirements, including an adequate technical data package, so that subsequent acquisitions may be made by conventional sealed bidding. This method is especially useful in acquisitions requiring technical proposals, particularly those for complex items. It is conducted in two steps:

(a) Step one consists of the request for, submission, evaluation, and (if necessary) discussion of a technical proposal. No pricing is involved. The objective is to determine the acceptability of the supplies or services offered. As used in this context, the word “technical’’ has a broad connotation and includes, among other things, the engineering approach, special manufacturing processes, and special testing techniques. It is the proper step for clarification of questions relating to technical requirements. Conformity to the technical requirements is resolved in this step, but not responsibility as defined in 9.1.

(b) Step two involves the submission of sealed priced bids by those who submitted acceptable technical proposals in step one. Bids submitted in step two are evaluated and the awards made in accordance with Subparts 14.3 and 14.4.

14.502 -- Conditions for Use.

(a) Unless other factors require the use of sealed bidding, two-step sealed bidding may be used in preference to negotiation when all of the following conditions are present:

(b) None of the following precludes the use of two-step sealed bidding:

14.503 -- Procedures.

14.503-1 -- Step One.

(a) Requests for technical proposals shall be synopsized in accordance with Part 5. The request must include, as a minimum, the following:

(b) Information on delivery or performance requirements may be of assistance to bidders in determining whether or not to submit a proposal and may be included in the request. The request shall also indicate that the information is not binding on the Government and that the actual delivery or performance requirements will be contained in the invitation issued under step two.

(c) Upon receipt, the contracting officer shall --

(d) The contracting officer shall establish a time period for evaluating technical proposals. The period may vary with the complexity and number of proposals involved. However, the evaluation should be completed quickly.



(g) When a technical proposal is found unacceptable (either initially or after clarification), the contracting officer shall promptly notify the offeror of the basis of the determination and that a revision of the proposal will not be considered. Upon written request, the contracting officer shall debrief unsuccessful offerors (see 15.505 and 15.506).

(h) Late technical proposals are governed by 15.208(b), (c) and (f).

(i) If it is necessary to discontinue two-step sealed bidding, the contracting officer shall include a statement of the facts and circumstances in the contract file. Each offeror shall be notified in writing. When step one results in no acceptable technical proposal or only one acceptable technical proposal, the acquisition may be continued by negotiation.

14.503-2 -- Step Two.

(a) Sealed bidding procedures shall be followed except that invitations for bids shall --

(b) The names of firms that submitted acceptable proposals in step one will be listed through the GPE for the benefit of prospective subcontractors (see 5.207).

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